Journal Information
Issue
Vol. 18. Issue 4.
Pages 213-318 (October - December 2020)
Essays and perspectives
Biodiversity and ecosystem services in the Campo Rupestre: A road map for the sustainability of the hottest Brazilian biodiversity hotspot
G. Wilson Fernandes, Lucas Arantes-Garcia, Milton Barbosa, Newton P.U. Barbosa, Eugênia K.L. Batista, Wallace Beiroz, Fernando M. Resende, Anna Abrahão, Emmanuel D. Almada, Elaine Alves, Natacha J. Alves, Patrícia Angrisano, Montserrat Arista, Juan Arroyo, André Jardim Arruda, Thaise de Oliveira Bahia, Laura Braga, Lílian Brito, Marcos Callisto, Dario Caminha-Paiva, Marília Carvalho, Abel Augusto Conceição, Leda N. Costa, Antonio Cruz, Jessica Cunha-Blum, John Dagevos, Braulio F.S. Dias, Victor D. Pinto, Rodolfo Dirzo, Daniel Quedes Domingos, Lívia Echternacht, Stephannie Fernandes, Jose Eugenio C. Figueira, Cecilia F. Fiorini, Ana Maria Giulietti, Augusto Gomes, Vanessa M. Gomes, Bernardo Gontijo, Fernando Goulart, Tadeu J. Guerra, Patrícia A. Junqueira, Débora Lima-Santos, Julia Marques, Joao Meira-Neto, Deise T.B. Miola, Leonor Patrícia C. Morellato, Daniel Negreiros, Elizabeth Neire, Ana Carolina Neves, Frederico S. Neves, Samuel Novais, Yumi Oki, Elizabeth Oliveira, Rafael S. Oliveira, Marco O. Pivari, Euripedes Pontes Junior, Bernardo D. Ranieri, Rodrigo Pinheiro Ribas, Aldicir Scariot, Carlos E. Schaefer, Letícia Sena, Pedro G. da Silva, Paulo R. Siqueira, Natalia C. Soares, Britaldo Soares-Filho, Ricardo Solar, Marcelo Tabarelli, Rogério Vasconcellos, Evaldo Vilela, Fernando A.O. Silveira
Perspectives in Ecology and Conservation. 2020;18:213-22
Highlights

  • Campo Rupestre (CR) occurs in the ecotone Cerrado-Atlantic Forest biodiversity hotspots.

  • CR epitomizes the conflicts between exploitative and sustainable socioeconomic models.

  • We propose and describe the Action Plan for the Campo Rupestre (APCR).

  • The APCR aims to reconcile the socio-economic and environmental values in the CR.

Open access
Assessing the SARS-CoV-2 threat to wildlife: Potential risk to a broad range of mammals
Fernando Martínez-Hernández, Ana Belem Isaak-Delgado, Jorge Alberto Alfonso-Toledo, Claudia Irais Muñoz-García, Guiehdani Villalobos, Nidia Aréchiga-Ceballos, Emilio Rendón-Franco
Perspectives in Ecology and Conservation. 2020;18:223-34
Highlights

  • Primate, carnivores and cetacean are more prone to SARS-CoV-2 infection.

  • Mutations of viral spike protein can produce virus variants favoring the spillover.

  • We suggest prioritizing monitoring efforts on susceptible species here mentioned.

Open access
Policy forums
Negative results provide valuable evidence for conservation
Kevin A. Wood
Perspectives in Ecology and Conservation. 2020;18:235-7
Highlights

  • Conservation practice and policy draw on information from a range of disciplines.

  • A publication bias limits the dissemination of negative findings.

  • This bias restricts and distorts the evidence used to inform conservation.

  • Both positive and negative findings can provide valuable evidence for conservation.

  • Addressing such bias requires the efforts of scientists, practitioners, policy-makers, editors and reviewers.

Open access
Vegetation misclassification compromises conservation of biodiversity and ecosystem services in Atlantic Forest ironstone outcrops
Fernando A.O. Silveira, Lucas N. Perillo, Flávio F. Carmo, Luciana H.Y. Kamino, Nara F.O. Mota, Pedro L. Viana, Felipe F. Carmo, Bernardo D. Ranieri, Matteus C. Ferreira, Lígia Vial, Luciano J. Alvarenga, Fernando M.G. Santos
Perspectives in Ecology and Conservation. 2020;18:238-42
Highlights

  • Changes in Brazil's legislation threaten conservation of ironstone campos rupestres.

  • There is no ecological equivalence between ironstone and quartzite campos rupestres.

  • Specific offset methods are needed to avoid the destruction of ironstone ecosystems.

Open access
Emerging threats linking tropical deforestation and the COVID-19 pandemic
Pedro H.S. Brancalion, Eben N. Broadbent, Sergio de-Miguel, Adrián Cardil, Marcos R. Rosa, Catherine T. Almeida, Danilo R.A. Almeida, Shourish Chakravarty, Mo Zhou, Javier G.P. Gamarra, Jingjing Liang, Renato Crouzeilles, Bruno Hérault, Luiz E.O.C. Aragão, Carlos Alberto Silva, Angelica M. Almeyda-Zambrano
Perspectives in Ecology and Conservation. 2020;18:243-6
Highlights

  • Pandemics can become a new indirect driver of tropical deforestation.

  • Halting illegal deforestation should be considered an essential activity during the pandemic.

  • Forest fires could aggravate the health risks of COVID-19.

  • Tropical deforestation will increase the risks of emerging zoonotic diseases.

  • Indigenous people should be especially protected during the current pandemic.

Open access
Research letters
Use of unfenced highway underpasses by lowland tapirs and other medium and large mammals in central-western Brazil
Fernanda Delborgo Abra, Ariel da Costa Canena, Guilherme Siniciato Terra Garbino, Emília Patrícia Medici
Perspectives in Ecology and Conservation. 2020;18:247-56
Highlights

  • The lowland tapir was the most recorded species using the underpasses.

  • Tapir underpass use summed more than 180 tons of biomass that crossed safely under the highway.

  • Mammal species assemblages differed among use in cattle boxes and drainage culverts.

  • Traffic activity on the highway peaked opposite to the activity peak of the mammals in the crossings.

  • Countries with limited financial resources should consider retrofitting of existing highway underpasses.

Open access
The fate of endemic birds of eastern Brazilian mountaintops in the face of climate change
Diego Hoffmann, Marcelo Ferreira de Vasconcelos, G. Wilson Fernandes
Perspectives in Ecology and Conservation. 2020;18:257-66
Highlights

  • Eastern Brazilian montane birds shall experience range and altitudinal shifts.

  • Potential displacements probably will result in local extinctions.

  • Nine endemic birds should be threatened in the near future.

  • Five montane regions are highlighted for conservation of endemic birds.

  • Public policies and research are urgently needed for conservation of these species.

Open access
Sarcoptic mange: An emerging threat to Chilean wild mammals?
Diego Montecino-Latorre, Constanza Napolitano, Cristóbal Briceño, Marcela M. Uhart
Perspectives in Ecology and Conservation. 2020;18:267-76
Highlights

  • Abnormally alopecic wild mammals may have increased in Chile between 2004 and 2008.

  • The two more affected groups were foxes (Lycalopex sp.) and South American camelids.

  • Testing of Andean foxes suggests that sarcoptic mange is the likely cause in this species.

  • The need of further data highlights the necessity of a Wildlife Health Program.

Open access
Effects of riparian deforestation on benthic invertebrate community and leaf processing in Atlantic forest streams
Monalisa Silva-Araújo, Eduardo F. Silva-Junior, Vinicius Neres-Lima, Rafael Feijó-Lima, Flavia Tromboni, Christine Lourenço-Amorim, Steven A. Thomas, Timothy P. Moulton, Eugenia Zandonà
Perspectives in Ecology and Conservation. 2020;18:277-82
Highlights

  • Riparian deforestation may strongly affect stream functioning, with consequences for biodiversity and ecosystem services.

  • We evaluated the effects of riparian deforestation on 1. measures of community structure using aquatic benthic invertebrates, and 2. an aspect of ecosystem functioning, aquatic leaf processing.

  • Both structural and functional measures changed with riparian deforestation: invertebrate diversity decreased and metrics changed as expected of a negative impact, and leaf processing decreased.

  • Thus both types of bioindicators were useful for monitoring changes and relating them to loss of biodiversity and ecosystem function.

Open access
Human carnivory as a major driver of vertebrate extinction
Zulmira H. Coimbra, Luiz Gomes-Jr, Fernando A.S. Fernandez
Perspectives in Ecology and Conservation. 2020;18:283-93
Highlights

  • Human carnivory threatens one-quarter of all vertebrates.

  • This is a higher impact than that of other major aspects of human ecology.

  • Human carnivory impacts wild vertebrates through multiple and ubiquitous mechanisms.

  • Terrestrial and freshwater species are mainly affected by livestock production and predation.

  • Aquatic species are mostly affected by predation and bycatch.

Open access
Diet of invasive cats, rats and tegu lizards reveals impact over threatened species in a tropical island
Juliana Vallim Gaiotto, Carlos Roberto Abrahão, Ricardo Augusto Dias, Leandro Bugoni
Perspectives in Ecology and Conservation. 2020;18:294-303
Highlights

  • The endemic Noronha skink (Trachylepis atlantica) is strongly depredated by rats, cats and lizards at Fernando de Noronha.

  • Feral cats are the main threat to endemic terrestrial wildlife and seabirds.

  • Tegu lizards and black rats present strong marine signature in their tissues, probably derived from seabird colonies.

  • Invasive rodents, as a food item, could be contributing to the persistence of feral cat and tegu lizard populations.

Open access
Fragment size and the disassembling of local bird communities in the Atlantic Forest: A taxonomic and functional approach
Helon Simões Oliveira, Sidney F. Gouveia, Juan Ruiz-Esparza, Stephen F. Ferrari
Perspectives in Ecology and Conservation. 2020;18:304-12
Highlights

  • As forest habitat loss progresses, functional overdispersion increases among related species.

  • The loss of forest habitat causes the local extinction of functionally similar bird species.

  • Removing functionally similar species leads to a reduction in functional redundancy.

  • Competition is more important than neutral processes in small forest habitat.

Open access
Habitat modification mediates the strength of trophic cascades on oak trees
Angela A.Q. Chan, Cristina Banks-Leite
Perspectives in Ecology and Conservation. 2020;18:313-8
Highlights

  • We investigated the strength of trophic cascades through bird exclusion.

  • Trophic cascades are three times stronger in forest interior than modified habitats.

  • Leaf damage, however, does not change with habitat modification.

  • Functional redundancy of birds may offset loss in their ecological function.

Open access
Perspectives in Ecology and Conservation

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